News: World Health Organization (WHO) has released Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report, 2019. The report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic.
Key highlights from Global TB Report, 2019
- Between 2015 and 2018, only 6.3 per cent TB cases showed a cumulative decline.
- The global decline in the total number of TB deaths between 2015 and 2018 was 11%.
- In 2018, 7 million new cases of TB were notified — an increase from 6.4 million notified in 2017 and from the 5.7-5.8 million notified annually between 2009 and 2012.
- The catastrophic costs ranged from 27% to 83% for all forms of TB, and from 67 % to 100% for drug-resistant TB.
- Undernourishment, smoking, alcohol abuse, HIV infection and diabetes, were the five major factors to which TB could be attributed.
- In 2017, India had 27.4 lakh TB patients which came down to 26.9 lakh in 2018. Of the estimated 2.69 million TB cases emerging in 2018, 2.15 million were reported to the Government of India — leaving a gap of 5, 40,000 patients who are going unreported.
- Incidence per 1, 00,000 population has decreased from 204 in 2017 to 199 in 2018.
- The number of patients being tested for rifampicin resistance has increased from 32% in 2017 to 46% in 2018.
About Tuberculosis (TB)
- TB is an infectious airborne bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- When TB infection becomes resistant to the first line of treatment — isoniazid and rifampicin, it is called Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). When the infection becomes resistant even to the second-line treatment it is called Extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)
- The Indian government has put forward National Strategic Plan (NSP) for TB Elimination, 2017-2025. The plan is a framework to provide guidance for the activities of various stakeholders to reduce the burden of TB mortality and morbidity.
- In 2018, the government launched the TB Free India campaign to take activities under NSP for TB Elimination. The campaign seeks to eliminate TB in India by 2025.
- TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign: The campaign aims to improve and expand the reach of Tuberculosis care services across the country by 2022.
- National TB Prevalence Survey: 25 vans will be part of the prevalence survey, which will go to 625 clusters of the country and check for TB. This sample survey is to be completed by 2020. The survey will present national and state level data which will be used as a policy tool for further interventions.
- Nikshay Poshan Yojana: Launched in 2018, a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme to provide nutritional support to TB patients. Under the scheme, TB patients have been receiving Rs. 500 per month for the entire duration of treatment.
- SDG 3.3: It calls to eliminate TB by 2030
- WHO End TB Strategy: Under the strategy, compared to 2015 levels of TB, the WHO aims to:
- Reduce TB deaths by 35 per cent and TB incidence rate to 20 per cent by 2020
- Reduce TB deaths by 90 per cent and TB incidence rate to 80 per cent by 2030
- Decrease TB deaths by 95 per cent and TB incidence rate to 90 per cent by 2035
- The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: It is an international financial organization designed to accelerate the end of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics. The organisation is a partnership between governments, civil society, the private sector and people affected by the diseases. It was formed in 2002.It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. Recently, India has announced a contribution of $22 million to the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria for the 6th replenishment cycle (2020-22).