HIV-AIDS

4 min read

News: According to Mizoram State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), Mizoram reports nine positive cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) a day.

Facts:

HIV-AIDS

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a term which applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. It is defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers.
  • At present there is no effective cure for HIV, but HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART.

HIV Prevalence in India

  • As per the India HIV Estimation 2017 report, National adult (15–49 years) HIV prevalence in India is estimated at 0.22% in 2017.
  • Among the States/UTs, in 2017, Mizoram has shown the highest estimated adult HIV prevalence of 2.04% followed by Manipur, and Nagaland.
  • The total number of people living with HIV in India is estimated at 21.40 lakhs in 2017.

Steps taken by the Government:

  • National AIDS Control Program (NACP): It was launched in 1992. Launched in 2012, under the Phase IV of NCAP, the target is to reduce new infections by 50% (2007 Baseline of NACP III). It also seeks comprehensive care, support and treatment to all persons living with HIV/AIDS.
  • National AIDS Control Organization: It is a division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare that provides leadership to HIV/AIDS control programme in India through 35 HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Societies. It was established in 1992 to implement NACP.
  • National Strategic Plan (2017-24): It aims towards fast tracking strategy of ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 and is expected to pave a roadmap for achieving the target of 90:90:90.
  • Mission SAMPARK: The aim is to trace those who are Left to Follow Up and are to be brought under Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) services.
  • Project Sunrise: It aims at prevention of AIDS especially among people injecting drugs in the 8 North-Eastern states

Global Initiatives

  • Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS): It is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It was established in 1994 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 90:90:90 Strategy: It is a HIV treatment narrative of UNAIDS programme which has set targets of
    • 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status (90% diagnosed),
    • 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (90% on HIV treatment) and
    • 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression (90% suppressed)