News: India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47 has launched Cartosat-3 and 13 commercial Nano satellites into Sun Synchronous orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota. The 13 nano satellites from USA were launched under a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL).
- Cartosat-3 satellite is a third generation agile advanced earth imaging satellite.
- It has been developed by Indian Space Research Organization. It will replace the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) series
- Cartosat-3 has a panchromatic resolution of 0.25 metres making it the imaging satellite with highest resolution.
- Cartosat-3 aims to address the increased demands for large scale urban planning, rural resource and infrastructure development, coastal land use and land cover
- Other potential uses of the Cartosat-3 satellite include weather mapping, cartography or army defence, and strategic applications.
- The mission life of CARTOSAT-3 would be for five years.
Sun synchronous Orbits: These are polar orbits are synchronous with the Sun. Thus, it passes over the same part of the earth at the same time of the day. A satellite in a sun synchronous orbit are usually at an altitude of between 600 and 800 km.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV):
- It is an indigenously-developed expendable launch system of the ISRO. It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
- It comes in the category of medium-lift launchers with a reach up to various orbits, including the GeoSynchronous Transfer Orbit, Lower Earth Orbit, and Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit.
Other Space Launch Vehicles by ISRO:
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV): They are used to launch satellites and other space objects into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits. GSLV has the capability to put a heavier payload in orbit than the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
- Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV):SSLV is capable of putting a payload of 500 kg to mid-inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It can also put a payload of 300 kg to Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). It is 34 metres tall and has a diameter of just two metres. It has a lift-off mass of 120 tonnes.
New Space India Limited (NSIL):
- It was set up in March 2019. It is a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE), under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).
- The NSIL has been set up to meet the increasing demands of Indian space programmes and to commercially exploit the emerging global space market.
- The main functions of NSIL are:
o Manufacture of Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) in collaboration with Private Sector,
o production of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) through Indian Industry,
o production and marketing of Space based products and services, including launch and application,
o Transfer of technology developed by ISRO Centres and constituent units of DOS and
o Marketing spin-off technologies and products/services, both in India and abroad.
Important Earth Observation Satellite series by ISRO: IRS series, RISAT series, RESOURCESAT series