Peritoneal dialysis

4 min read

News:Union Health Ministry has released guidelines for establishing peritoneal dialysis services under the Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program(PMNDP).

Facts:

What is Dialysis:

  • Dialysis is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally.This is also referred to as renal replacement therapy.

Types of Dialysis:There are two main types of dialysis which are:

Hemodialysis(HD):

  • It is commonly known as blood dialysis.In HD, the blood is filtered through a machine that acts like an artificial kidney and is returned back into the body. 
  • HD needs to be performed in a designated dialysis center. It is usually needed about 3 times per week with each episode talking about 3-4 hours.

Peritoneal dialysis(PD):

  • It is commonly known as water dialysis.In PD, the blood is cleaned without being removed from the body.The abdomen sac (lining) acts as a natural filter. 
  • A solution (mainly made up of salts and sugars) is injected into the abdomen that encourages filtration such that the waste is transferred from the blood to the solution.
  • This process can be done at Home.Hence,it does away with the substantial costs of infrastructure, maintenance and staffing, reduces the demand on the healthcare system and offers patient autonomy.

About Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme: 

  • The Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme was rolled out in 2016 as part of the National Health Mission(NHM) for the provision of free dialysis services to the poor. 
  • The first phase of the programme envisaged setting up centers for hemodialysis.
  • The Guidelines for Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme envisage the provision of dialysis services under NHM in PPP (Public-Private Partnership) model.

Recent Guidelines:

  • The Ministry has requested all States to include proposals for establishing peritoneal dialysis under their respective programme implementation plans.
  • The guidelines also envisage providing training to community health workers to provide support to persons for peritoneal dialysis at home or in primary healthcare settings.
  • This move will instantly benefit the 2 lakh Indians who develop end-stage kidney failure every year in India.