Factly articles for 16th July 2020

14 min read

1.India-EU Summit pushes cooperation in civil nuclear R&D, trade, security, cyber space

News: The 15th India-European Union Summit was held in the virtual platform.

Facts:

Key Facts Related to Summit:

  • India-EU Strategic Partnership: A Roadmap to 2025: It was endorsed as a common roadmap to guide joint action and further strengthen the India-EU Strategic Partnership over the next five years.
  • Civil Nuclear Cooperation agreement: India and the European Union (EU) have signed a civil nuclear cooperation agreement which focuses on research and development cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
  • Clean Energy and Climate Partnership: It was established by the European Union(EU) and India in 2016 to promote access to and dissemination of clean energy and climate friendly technologies and encourages research and the development of innovative solutions.
  • International Platform on Sustainable Finance (IPSF): It was launched in 2019.Its members are Argentina, Canada, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Morocco, Norway, Switzerland and European Union.It aims to scale up the mobilization of private capital towards environmentally sustainable investments.
  • International Conference on Chemical Management: The conference is to be held in Bonn in 2021.The leaders supported the ambitious mandate for an international chemical and waste management framework beyond 2020.

Additional Facts:

  • European Union(EU): It is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe.Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium
  • The EU as a whole was India’s largest trading partner in 2018.India’s bilateral trade with the EU in 2018-19 stood at USD 115.6 billion with exports valued at USD 57.17 billion and imports worth USD 58.42 billion.

2.First indigenous vaccine for infant pneumonia approved

News: The Drug Controller General of India(DCGI) has approved the first fully indigenously developed conjugate vaccine for pneumonia developed by the Serum Institute of India,Pune.

Facts:

  • Pneumonia: It is an infection in one or both lungs.The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs which are called alveoli.The alveoli fill with fluid or pus making it difficult to breathe.
  • Causes: It is caused by a number of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi.
  • Symptoms: High fever and chills, cough with phlegm, physical weakness and a feeling of being unwell, shortness of breath and rapid breathing and a racing pulse.
  • Transmission:
    • The viruses and bacteria that are commonly found in a child’s nose or throat can infect the lungs if they are inhaled.
    • They may also spread via air-borne droplets from a cough or sneeze.
    • It may also spread through blood especially during and shortly after birth.
  • Treatment: Pneumonia is both preventable and treatable.

Initiatives against Pneumonia:

  • Integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD): It was launched by WHO and UNICEF in 2009.It aims to end preventable childhood deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025.
  • Social Awareness and Action to Neutralise Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS) campaign: It was launched by the Union Health Ministry to mobilise people to protect children from pneumonia and train health personnel and other stakeholders to provide prioritised treatment to control the disease.

3.Prime minister to address UN ECOSOC

News: The Prime Minister will virtually address the high-level segment of United Nations Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC) as this year marks the 75th anniversary of the Council.

Facts:

  • The United Nations Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC) was established in 1945.It is one of the six main organs of the United Nations.
    • Other organs are UNSC, UNGA, Trusteeship Council, ICJ and UN secretariat.
  • Aim: To serve as a forum for discussing international economic and social issues and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to Member States and the United Nations system.
  • Headquarters: New York, United States.
  • Members: The Council consists of 54 Member States which are elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly.
  • High-level Segment(HLS): It is held annually to represent ECOSOC’s annual cycle of work and to convene a diverse group of representatives from Government, the private sector, civil society and academia.
  • Theme for 2020: “Accelerated action and transformative pathways: realizing the decade of action and delivery for sustainable development.”

4.Explained: What is non-personal data?

News: The committee headed by Kris Gopalakrishnan has submitted its draft report on framing rules on non-personal data governance.

Facts:

  • Non-Personal Data: It is any set of data which does not contain personally identifiable information.This means that no individual or living person can be identified by looking at such data.
  • Recommendations of committee:
    • The non-personal data generated in the country can be allowed to be harnessed by various domestic companies and entities.
    • To set up a new authority which would be empowered to monitor the use and mining of such non-personal data.
  • Categories: The committee has classified non-personal data into three main categories:
    • Public Non-Personal Data: All the data collected by government and its agencies such as census, data collected by municipal corporations on the total tax receipts in a particular period or any information collected during execution of all publicly funded works
    • Community Non-Personal Data: Any data about a set of people who have either the same geographic location, religion, job or other common social interests.For example, the data collected by ride-hailing apps, electricity distribution companies among others.
    • Private non-personal data: It can be defined as those which are produced by individuals which can be derived from application of proprietary software or knowledge.

5.Centre launches ‘world’s most affordable’ Covid-19 test kit

Facts: Government of India has launched a low-cost RT-PCR Covid-19 test kit named Corosure.The kit has been developed by IIT Delhi.

Additional Facts:

  • RT-PCR: The real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) test is the most commonly used one for Covid-19.It is primarily based on PCR, a process that repeatedly copies and amplifies the specific genetic fragments of the virus ensuring that there is enough of a sample to conduct the analysis.

6.Transgender law: Centre publishes draft rules

News: Government has released a new Draft of Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Rules, 2020 under the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act,2019.

Facts:

Key Draft Rules:

  • Application for issue of the certificate: The rules have done away with the requirement of a medical examination for trans persons applying for a certificate of identity to the district magistrate.
    • However, incase of gender change application by a trans person,  a certificate from the medical superintendent of the medical institution where the applicant underwent the intervention would be required.
  • Educational Institutions: All educational institutions shall have a committee that transgender persons can approach in case of any harassment or discrimination.
  • Provisions for non-discrimination: Governments shall take adequate steps to prohibit discrimination in any Government or private organisation or establishment including in the areas of education, employment among others.
  • Transgender Protection Cell: Every State Government shall set up a Transgender Protection Cell under the charge of the District Magistrate and Director General of Police to monitor cases of offences against transgender persons.
  • Punishment: States will be responsible for timely prosecution of individuals charged under Section 18 of the Act which proscribes offences against the transgender community and penalties.The offences would be punishable with imprisonment for six months upto two years with a fine.

Additional Facts:

  • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act,2019: The act aims to ensure Social, economic and educational empowerment of transgender persons.
    • Definition of Transgender: Those whose gender does not match the gender assigned to that person at birth.
    • Right of residence: Every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household.  
    • National Council for Transgender persons (NCT): It would advise the central government on related policies and legislation and also act as a centre for grievance redressals.

7.PRAGYATA Guidelines on Digital Education

News: Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has released guidelines on digital education titled ‘PRAGYATA’.

Facts:

  • Aim: To assist School Heads, Teachers, parents and students in E-learning.
  • Prepared by: The guidelines have been prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).
    • These are only advisory in nature and state governments can formulate their own rules based on local needs.
  • Guidelines: The guidelines include eight steps of online/digital learning: Plan- Review- Arrange- Guide- Yak (talk)- Assign- Track- Appreciate.