Factly articles for 1st July 2020

14 min read

1.India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s ‘missing females’, says UN report

News: United Nations Population Fund(UNFPA) has released the State of World Population Report 2020.

Facts:

  • Title of the report: ‘Against my will: defying the practices that harm women and girls and undermine equality’.
  • Focus of the report: The report focuses on the problem of child marriage, son preference, gender biased sex selection(GBSS) and female genital mutilation(FGM).

Key Takeaways:

  • Harmful practices: The report identifies 19 harmful practices against women out of which 3 are most widespread and persistent: Female genital mutilation (FGM), child marriage and son preference.
  • Missing Females: India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million missing females over the past 50 years due to gender based sex selection and preference for sons.
  • Child marriage: Globally, one in five girls is married by age 18.
  • Female Genital Mutilation: In 2020, an estimated 4.1 million girls will be subjected to female genital mutilation.

Additional Facts:

  • UNFPA: It is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency.It aims to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted,every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.Its headquarters is located at New York, United States.

2.PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises(PM FME) scheme

News: Union Minister for Food Processing has launched the PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises(PM FME) scheme.

Facts:

  • Type: Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  • Aim: To provide financial, technical and business support for the upgradation of existing micro food processing enterprises.
  • Duration: It will be implemented over a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25.
  • Funding: It would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and Himalayan States, 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature and 100% by Centre for other UTs.
  • Features of the Scheme:
  • One District One Product (ODOP) Approach: The States would identify food products for districts keeping in view the existing clusters and availability of raw material.
  • Other Focus Areas: The scheme would also focus on Waste to wealth products, minor forest products and Aspirational Districts.
  • Financial Support:
    • Existing micro food processing units can avail credit-linked capital subsidy at 35% of the eligible project cost with a maximum ceiling of Rs.10 lakh per unit.
    • Seed capital at Rs.40,000/- per SHG member would be provided for working capital and purchase of small tools.

3.Explained: The G4 flu virus with ‘pandemic potential’, found by Chinese researchers?

News: Researchers in China have discovered a new strain of the H1N1 swine flu virus named G4 virus.

Facts:

  • G4 virus: It is a new strain of virus that has descended from the H1N1 Influenza that was responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.
  • The evidence of the virus have been found in people who work in abattoirs and the swine industry.
  • However,the virus hasn’t shown evidence of human-to-human transmission so far.

Additional Facts:

  • H1N1(Swine Flu): It is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus.
  • Swine flu virus does not normally infect humans.However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred.
  • Symptoms: Cough, nasal secretions, fever, loss of appetite, fatigue, and headache.
  • Transmission: It is transmitted by exposure to infected droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing or through contact to contaminate hands or surfaces.
  • Pandemic: In 2009, WHO declared the outbreak of type A H1N1 influenza virus a pandemic.

4.Infant mortality rate down but 1 in 31 children die within one year of life

News: Registrar General of India has released the Sample Registration System – Statistical Report 2018.

Facts:

Key Takeaways:

             Indicators                    Data
Sex Ratio at Birth(SRB): It is defined as the number of female births per 1,000 male births. It has gone up by three points to 899 girls per 1,000 boys in 2018(three years average) from 896 in 2015-2017. States: Chhattisgarh has the highest SRB(958) while Uttarakhand has the lowest(840). 
Infant Mortality Rate(IMR): It is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. It has come down to 32 in 2018 per 1000 live child births from 33 in 2017.States: Madhya Pradesh has the maximum infant mortality rate of 48 per 1000 while Kerala had the lowest infant mortality at 7 per 1000.
Total Fertility Rate(TFR): It indicates the average number of children expected to be born to a woman during her reproductive span of 15-49 years. It has declined to 2.2 in 2018 from 3.6 during 1991 and 5.6 during 1971.States: In 2018, Bihar has reported the highest TFR (3.2) while Delhi and West Bengal have reported the lowest TFR(1.5). 
Under 5 Mortality Rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly 5 years of age expressed per 1,000 live births. It has come down to 36 in 2018 from 37 in the year 2017. 
Institutional DeliveriesIn 2018, around 82.5% of the deliveries were institutional which includes government as well as private hospitals.  
Birth Rate:It is a crude measure of fertility of a population and a crucial determinant of population growth. It has declined from 36.9 in 1971 to 20.0 in 2018.States: Bihar (26.2) continues to remain at the top of list in birth rate while Andaman and Nicobar (11.2) is at the bottom. 
Death Rate:It is one of the basic components of population change and the data is essential for demographic studies and public health administration It has decreased from 14.9 in 1971 to 6.2 in 2018.States: Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate at 8 and Delhi has a lowest death rate of 3.3. 

Additional Facts:

  • Sample Registration System:It is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility and mortality indicators at the national and sub-national levels.
    • It was initiated on a pilot basis by the Registrar General of India in a few states in 1964-65, it became fully operational during 1969-70.

5.World Bank approves fresh funds for Ganga cleaning mission

News: The World Bank has approved a five-year loan to the Namami Ganga or the National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG) under its second National Ganga River Basin project.

Facts:

  • National Ganga River Basin project: It is a World Bank assisted project approved in the year 2011.
  • Aim: To help rejuvenate the Ganga River by helping stem river pollution, and strengthening the management of the river basin.

Additional Facts:

  • Namami Gange: It was launched in 2014.It is an Integrated Conservation Mission under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
    • Aim: To achieve effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
    • Main Pillars: a) Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure b) River surface Cleaning c) Afforestation d) Industrial Effluent Monitoring, e) River-Front Development f) Biodiversity g) Ganga Gram and h) Public Awareness.
  • National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG): It has been established as an Authority under National Council for River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Act, 2016.
    • It is the implementing agency of the Namami Gange Programme at the national level.

6.Union Sports Minister launches NADA India App

Facts: NADA India is a mobile application launched by National Anti-Doping Agency(NADA) to eliminate the gap between athletes and NADA by providing easily-accessible information on various aspects of sport, prohibited substances and dope-testing.

Additional Facts:

  • NADA: It is the national organisation responsible for promoting, coordinating and monitoring the doping control program in sports in all its forms in India.

7.Extension of Operation Greens from TOP to Total

News: Union Minister for Food Processing has announced the extension of Operation Greens from TOP (Tomato-Onion-Potato) crops to all Perishable Fruits & Vegetables (TOP to Total).

Facts:

  • Operation Greens: It was announced in the Budget 2018-2019 to stabilize the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) crops.It is being implemented by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries.
  • The scheme has now been extended from tomato, onion and potato (TOP) crops to other all Perishable Fruits & Vegetables(TOP to Total).
  • Objective: To protect the growers of fruits and vegetables from making distress sale due to lockdown and reduce the post -harvest losses.
  • Duration of Scheme: for the period of six months from the date of notification i.e., 11/06/2020.
  • Eligible entities: Food Processors, Co-operative Societies, Individual farmers, Exporters, State Marketing/Co-operative Federation engaged in processing/ marketing of fruits and vegetables.
  • Pattern of Assistance: Ministry will provide subsidy 50 % of the cost of the following two components subject to the cost norms:
    • Transportation of eligible crops from surplus production cluster to consumption centre and/or
    • Hiring of appropriate storage facilities for eligible crops (for a maximum period of 3 months).