News: United Nations Population Fund(UNFPA) has released the State of World Population Report 2020.
- Title of the report: ‘Against my will: defying the practices that harm women and girls and undermine equality’.
- Focus of the report: The report focuses on the problem of child marriage, son preference, gender biased sex selection(GBSS) and female genital mutilation(FGM).
- Harmful practices: The report identifies 19 harmful practices against women out of which 3 are most widespread and persistent: Female genital mutilation (FGM), child marriage and son preference.
- Missing Females: India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million missing females over the past 50 years due to gender based sex selection and preference for sons.
- Child marriage: Globally, one in five girls is married by age 18.
- Female Genital Mutilation: In 2020, an estimated 4.1 million girls will be subjected to female genital mutilation.
- UNFPA: It is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency.It aims to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted,every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.Its headquarters is located at New York, United States.
News: Union Minister for Food Processing has launched the PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises(PM FME) scheme.
- Type: Centrally Sponsored Scheme
- Aim: To provide financial, technical and business support for the upgradation of existing micro food processing enterprises.
- Duration: It will be implemented over a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25.
- Funding: It would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and Himalayan States, 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature and 100% by Centre for other UTs.
- Features of the Scheme:
- One District One Product (ODOP) Approach: The States would identify food products for districts keeping in view the existing clusters and availability of raw material.
- Other Focus Areas: The scheme would also focus on Waste to wealth products, minor forest products and Aspirational Districts.
- Financial Support:
- Existing micro food processing units can avail credit-linked capital subsidy at 35% of the eligible project cost with a maximum ceiling of Rs.10 lakh per unit.
- Seed capital at Rs.40,000/- per SHG member would be provided for working capital and purchase of small tools.
News: Researchers in China have discovered a new strain of the H1N1 swine flu virus named G4 virus.
- G4 virus: It is a new strain of virus that has descended from the H1N1 Influenza that was responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.
- The evidence of the virus have been found in people who work in abattoirs and the swine industry.
- However,the virus hasn’t shown evidence of human-to-human transmission so far.
- H1N1(Swine Flu): It is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus.
- Swine flu virus does not normally infect humans.However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred.
- Symptoms: Cough, nasal secretions, fever, loss of appetite, fatigue, and headache.
- Transmission: It is transmitted by exposure to infected droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing or through contact to contaminate hands or surfaces.
- Pandemic: In 2009, WHO declared the outbreak of type A H1N1 influenza virus a pandemic.
News: Registrar General of India has released the Sample Registration System – Statistical Report 2018.
|Sex Ratio at Birth(SRB): It is defined as the number of female births per 1,000 male births.||It has gone up by three points to 899 girls per 1,000 boys in 2018(three years average) from 896 in 2015-2017. States: Chhattisgarh has the highest SRB(958) while Uttarakhand has the lowest(840).|
|Infant Mortality Rate(IMR): It is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.||It has come down to 32 in 2018 per 1000 live child births from 33 in 2017.States: Madhya Pradesh has the maximum infant mortality rate of 48 per 1000 while Kerala had the lowest infant mortality at 7 per 1000.|
|Total Fertility Rate(TFR): It indicates the average number of children expected to be born to a woman during her reproductive span of 15-49 years.||It has declined to 2.2 in 2018 from 3.6 during 1991 and 5.6 during 1971.States: In 2018, Bihar has reported the highest TFR (3.2) while Delhi and West Bengal have reported the lowest TFR(1.5).|
|Under 5 Mortality Rate: Probability of dying between birth and exactly 5 years of age expressed per 1,000 live births.||It has come down to 36 in 2018 from 37 in the year 2017.|
|Institutional Deliveries||In 2018, around 82.5% of the deliveries were institutional which includes government as well as private hospitals.|
|Birth Rate:It is a crude measure of fertility of a population and a crucial determinant of population growth.||It has declined from 36.9 in 1971 to 20.0 in 2018.States: Bihar (26.2) continues to remain at the top of list in birth rate while Andaman and Nicobar (11.2) is at the bottom.|
|Death Rate:It is one of the basic components of population change and the data is essential for demographic studies and public health administration||It has decreased from 14.9 in 1971 to 6.2 in 2018.States: Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate at 8 and Delhi has a lowest death rate of 3.3.|
- Sample Registration System:It is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility and mortality indicators at the national and sub-national levels.
- It was initiated on a pilot basis by the Registrar General of India in a few states in 1964-65, it became fully operational during 1969-70.
News: The World Bank has approved a five-year loan to the Namami Ganga or the National Mission for Clean Ganga(NMCG) under its second National Ganga River Basin project.
- National Ganga River Basin project: It is a World Bank assisted project approved in the year 2011.
- Aim: To help rejuvenate the Ganga River by helping stem river pollution, and strengthening the management of the river basin.
- Namami Gange: It was launched in 2014.It is an Integrated Conservation Mission under the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
- Aim: To achieve effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
- Main Pillars: a) Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure b) River surface Cleaning c) Afforestation d) Industrial Effluent Monitoring, e) River-Front Development f) Biodiversity g) Ganga Gram and h) Public Awareness.
- National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG): It has been established as an Authority under National Council for River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Act, 2016.
- It is the implementing agency of the Namami Gange Programme at the national level.
Facts: NADA India is a mobile application launched by National Anti-Doping Agency(NADA) to eliminate the gap between athletes and NADA by providing easily-accessible information on various aspects of sport, prohibited substances and dope-testing.
- NADA: It is the national organisation responsible for promoting, coordinating and monitoring the doping control program in sports in all its forms in India.
News: Union Minister for Food Processing has announced the extension of Operation Greens from TOP (Tomato-Onion-Potato) crops to all Perishable Fruits & Vegetables (TOP to Total).
- Operation Greens: It was announced in the Budget 2018-2019 to stabilize the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) crops.It is being implemented by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries.
- The scheme has now been extended from tomato, onion and potato (TOP) crops to other all Perishable Fruits & Vegetables(TOP to Total).
- Objective: To protect the growers of fruits and vegetables from making distress sale due to lockdown and reduce the post -harvest losses.
- Duration of Scheme: for the period of six months from the date of notification i.e., 11/06/2020.
- Eligible entities: Food Processors, Co-operative Societies, Individual farmers, Exporters, State Marketing/Co-operative Federation engaged in processing/ marketing of fruits and vegetables.
- Pattern of Assistance: Ministry will provide subsidy 50 % of the cost of the following two components subject to the cost norms:
- Transportation of eligible crops from surplus production cluster to consumption centre and/or
- Hiring of appropriate storage facilities for eligible crops (for a maximum period of 3 months).