ISRO gears up for Chandrayaan 2 mission

  1. The Indian Space Research Organisation has scheduled the launch of Chandrayaan 2 mission between 9th and 16th July. Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second lunar mission which will be launched aboard a GSLV-Mk III rocket.
  2. Chandrayaan 2 will comprise of an Orbiter, Lander named ‘Vikram’ and Rover named ‘Pragyan’. The orbiter will circle the moon and provide information about its surface, while the lander will make a soft landing on the surface and send out the rover. The rover will be used mostly for in situ experiments.
  3. According to ISRO Chandrayaan-2 will be the most complex mission undertaken by ISRO. It is because the landing on moon involves multiple challenges.
  4. Firstly, ensuring trajectory accuracy is a major challenge. Since, the distance between moon and earth is large, navigating such a large distance poses many challenges as trajectory is influenced by the non-uniform gravity of the earth and moon, gravitational pull of other astronomical bodies, solar radiation pressure, and the moons true orbital motion.
  5. Secondly, deep space communication is a challenge, as owing to the large distance from earth and limited on- board power, radio signals used for communication are weak with heavy background noise.
  6. Thirdly, Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) and Lunar capture is a major challenge. As the moon’s location is continually changing due to orbital motion, the intersection of Chandrayaan 2 and the Moon’s path has to be predicted sufficiently in advance with a high level of accuracy.
  7. Fourthly, while soft landing on the moon, the on-board NGC and propulsion system has to work in union, autonomously, and automatically for a successful landing. Further, the landing site landscape features should not result in a communication shadow area.
  8. Fifthly, orbiting around the moon is a challenge. This is because, lunar gravity is ‘lumpy’ due to uneven mass distribution under its surface and the influences the orbit of the spacecraft.
  9. Sixthly, lunar dust is major issue. The lunar dust stick to most surfaces, causing a disruption in deployment mechanisms, solar panel performance, and NGC sensor performances.
  10. Finally, the extreme temperature and hard vacuum (caused by the ambient pressure) makes the lunar surface extremely hostile environment for lander and rover operations.

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