System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR)

News: According to the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (Safar), the impact of the measures taken due to the coronavirus outbreak has resulted in a drop in PM2.5 by 30% in Delhi and by 15% in Ahmedabad and Pune.


  • SAFAR is a system to measure the air quality of a metropolitan city. It measures the overall pollution level and the location-specific air quality of the city.
  • Launched by:Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)
  • Developed by:Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 
  • Operationalized by: India Meteorological Department (IMD).
  • Cities covered: Delhi, Pune, Mumbai and Ahmedabad
  • Information provided: 
    • Air quality forecast, 1-3 days in advance (Pollutants measured: PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, and Mercury)
    • Weather forecast, 1-3 days in advance
    • Location-specific UV index information
    • Emission scenario

Additional Facts:

Air Quality Index (AQI):

  • The AQI classifies air quality of a day considering criteria pollutants through colour codes and air quality descriptor. Further, it also links air quality with likely human health impacts.
  • Measures eight major pollutants: particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, ammonia and lead.