News: The human trial of COVID-19 vaccine named ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and backed by AstraZeneca Plc has shown a positive result.
- How was the vaccine produced? The vaccine was made from a genetically engineered virus(adenovirus) that causes the common cold in chimpanzees.
- However, the virus was heavily modified so that it cannot cause infections in people and look a bit like the coronavirus that produces spike protein that the virus uses to enter and infect human cells.
- What was the response? The first phase of clinical trials did not prompt any serious side effects and produced antibodies and T-cells that can fight coronavirus.
- Antibodies: It is a protective protein produced by the immune system in order to attack antigens.Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body.
- T-cells: It is a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the immune system and are able to spot which of the body’s cells have been infected and destroy them.