Kyoto protocol’s Adaptation Fund:

About Adaptation Fund

  • The Adaptation Fund was set up in 2001 under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • It seeks to finance projects and programmes in developing countries to adapt to the harmful effects of climate change.
  • The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on certified emission reduction (CERs) issued by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

Additional Information:

Types of Climate Funds

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • It was established in 1992 during the Rio Earth Summit. It is headquartered in Washington DC, USA.
  • GEF funds are available to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet the objectives of the international environmental conventions and agreements.
  • The World Bank serves as the GEF Trustee, administering the GEF Trust Fund (contributions by donors)

Green Climate Fund:

  • It was set up by the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010, as part of the UNFCC’s financial mechanism.
  • GCF helps developing countries limit or reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change by financing low-emission, climate-resilient development.

Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF):

  • It was established under the UNFCC in 2001. The Global Environment Facility operates the SCCF.
  •  It finances projects relating to adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification.

Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF):

  • It was established under the UNFCC in 2001. It is administered by the Global Environment Facility.
  • The LDCF aims to address the needs of the 48 LDCs which are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.

 About Kyoto Protocol:

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It aimed to achieve a legally binding emissions reduction by industrialized countries. 
  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 and entered into force in 2005.


  • Reduction of collective Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level by 2012. This is known as the “first commitment period”
  • Second commitment period (2013-2020) to reduce emissions by 18% was adopted by the Doha Amendment (2012)

Approach: Equity and Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR) – Legally binding targets for 39 developed countries. No legally binding targets for developing countries.