Hindu Kush Mountains

News: India Meteorological Department (IMD) will collaborate with meteorological agencies in China and Pakistan, among others, to provide climate forecast services to countries in Hindu Kush Mountain region. It will be under the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).


  • The Hindu Kush and Himalayan Range (HKH) is famously known as the earth’s “third pole” as it forms the largest area of permanent ice cover outside of the North and South Poles.
  • The HKH region spans Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • It is the source of ten major rivers, and is particularly sensitive to climate change. According to Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment, 36% of the glaciers along in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya range (HKH) could melt by 2100 even if global temperature rise is limited to 1.5C above pre-industrial levels.

Additional Information:

World Meteorological Organization (WMO):

  • It is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) for meteorology, operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences.
  • It was established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was established after the 1873 Vienna International Meteorological Congress.