Hornbills among top seed dispersers, most threatened

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  1. According to a study carried out in Pakke Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh,it noted that hornbills,one among the large-sized frugivores (fruit eaters) birds are also the top seed dispersers.
  2. The study has found that among the different bird species,hornbills were found to be the most effective seed dispersers.They were found to swallow and disperse most of the fruits they handled.
  3. They swallow the fruit as a whole causing no damage to the seed.They are known to disperse seeds far away from the parent plant (up to 13 km).
  4. Plants depend on frugivore birds to disperse the seeds at favourable sites which have low competition and predation pressures to expand their geographic range.And so the decline of frugivores could severely affect the ecosystem.
  5. Pakke Tiger Reserve also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve, is a Project Tiger reserve.It is located in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh.
  6. India has nine hornbill species-(a)Indian Grey Hornbill (endemic to India) (b)the Malabar Grey Hornbill (endemic to the Western Ghats) (c)Malabar Pied Hornbill (endemic to India and Sri Lanka) (d)Great Hornbill, Narcondam Hornbill (endemic to Narcondam) (e)Austen’s Brown Hornbill (f)Rufous-necked Hornbill (g)Wreathed Hornbill and (h)White-throated Brown Hornbill.
  7. The great hornbill is the state bird of Kerala and Arunachal in India.It is not a state bird of Nagaland although the hornbill festival is celebrated in Nagaland every year.The bird is listed as vulnerable species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List.

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