Malaria drop is sharpest in India, 90% of cases are in 7 states

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News: The World Health Organization has released the annual Global Malaria Report.

Facts:

Key Takeaways from the Global Malaria Report, 2019

Global:

  • In 2018, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide. Most malaria cases were in the WHO African Region (93%).
  •  In 2018, there were an estimated 405 000 deaths from malaria globally. More than 85% of the global malaria deaths in 2018 were concentrated in the 20 countries of WHO’s African region and India. I
  • Nigeria had the highest burden of all malaria cases, at 24%.

India

  •  India registered a fall of 2.6 million malaria cases in 2018 as compared to 2017. 
  •  India accounted for 53% of total malaria deaths occurring in WHO South East Asia region.
  •  Seven states account for about 90% of the burden of malaria cases in India. These are Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

Additional Information:

Global Initiatives to Control Malaria:Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030: In 2015, the World Health Assembly approved a Global Technical Strategy for Malaria with the following goals-

o   By 2030, 90% Reduction in malaria mortality rates globally compared with 2015

o   By 2030, 90% Reduction in malaria case incidence globally compared with 2015

o   Eliminate malaria in at least 10 countries by 2020 and 35 by 2030

o   Prevent re-establishment of malaria in all countries that are malaria-free

E-2020 Initiative: In 2016, WHO launched E-2020 initiative to scale up efforts to eliminate malaria in 21 countries by 2020. India is not among the 21 countries under E-2020 initiative.

Major Initiatives taken by India:

1.       National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016-2030): It aims to eliminate malaria nationally and contribute to improved health, quality of life and alleviation of poverty.

2.       National Strategic Plan for malaria elimination (2017-2020): Under the plan, the country has been stratified based on the malaria burden into four categories – category 0 to category 3. The objectives are:

  • Eliminate malaria from all 26 low (Category 1) and moderate (Category 2) transmission states/union territories (UTs) by 2022
  • Reduce the incidence of malaria to less than 1 case per 1000 population per year in all states and UTs and their districts by 2024
  •  Interrupt indigenous transmission of malaria throughout the entire country, including all high transmission states and union territories (UTs) (Category 3) by 2027
  •  Prevent the re-establishment of local transmission of malaria in areas where it has been eliminated and maintain national malaria-free status by 2030 and beyond

3.       National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP):

  • It was launched in 2003-04 by merging National anti-malaria control programme, National Filaria Control Programme and Kala Azar Control programmes
  • Japanese B Encephalitis, Dengue/DHF& Chikungunya have also been included in this Program
  • Directorate of NAMP is the nodal agency for prevention and control of major Vector Borne Diseases.