News: The World Health Organization has released the annual Global Malaria Report.
Key Takeaways from the Global Malaria Report, 2019
- In 2018, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide. Most malaria cases were in the WHO African Region (93%).
- In 2018, there were an estimated 405 000 deaths from malaria globally. More than 85% of the global malaria deaths in 2018 were concentrated in the 20 countries of WHO’s African region and India. I
- Nigeria had the highest burden of all malaria cases, at 24%.
- India registered a fall of 2.6 million malaria cases in 2018 as compared to 2017.
- India accounted for 53% of total malaria deaths occurring in WHO South East Asia region.
- Seven states account for about 90% of the burden of malaria cases in India. These are Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.
Global Initiatives to Control Malaria:Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030: In 2015, the World Health Assembly approved a Global Technical Strategy for Malaria with the following goals-
o By 2030, 90% Reduction in malaria mortality rates globally compared with 2015
o By 2030, 90% Reduction in malaria case incidence globally compared with 2015
o Eliminate malaria in at least 10 countries by 2020 and 35 by 2030
o Prevent re-establishment of malaria in all countries that are malaria-free
E-2020 Initiative: In 2016, WHO launched E-2020 initiative to scale up efforts to eliminate malaria in 21 countries by 2020. India is not among the 21 countries under E-2020 initiative.
Major Initiatives taken by India:
1. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016-2030): It aims to eliminate malaria nationally and contribute to improved health, quality of life and alleviation of poverty.
2. National Strategic Plan for malaria elimination (2017-2020): Under the plan, the country has been stratified based on the malaria burden into four categories – category 0 to category 3. The objectives are:
- Eliminate malaria from all 26 low (Category 1) and moderate (Category 2) transmission states/union territories (UTs) by 2022
- Reduce the incidence of malaria to less than 1 case per 1000 population per year in all states and UTs and their districts by 2024
- Interrupt indigenous transmission of malaria throughout the entire country, including all high transmission states and union territories (UTs) (Category 3) by 2027
- Prevent the re-establishment of local transmission of malaria in areas where it has been eliminated and maintain national malaria-free status by 2030 and beyond
3. National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP):
- It was launched in 2003-04 by merging National anti-malaria control programme, National Filaria Control Programme and Kala Azar Control programmes
- Japanese B Encephalitis, Dengue/DHF& Chikungunya have also been included in this Program
- Directorate of NAMP is the nodal agency for prevention and control of major Vector Borne Diseases.