News: Nepal has released a new map showing Kalapani, Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh areas as part of its territory.However,India has termed it as artificial enlargement of Nepal territorial claims that will not be accepted.
India-Nepal Border Disputes:
- Kalapani is located at an altitude of 3600m on the Kailash Mansarovar route.It borders Uttarakhand in India and Sudurpaschim Pradesh in Nepal.
- Since the Indo-China war of 1962, Kalapani has been controlled by India’s Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
- Origin of Dispute: The 1816 Treaty of Sagauli signed between British India and Nepal defined river Mahakali as the western border of Nepal.
- However, discrepancy in locating the source of the Mahakali river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.
- India claims that the river begins in Kalapani as this is where all its tributaries merge.
- On the other hand, Nepal claims not only the Kalapani region but also Limpiyadhura and Lipulekh as parts of its territory.All three areas are to the east of the river Kali.
Susta Territorial Dispute:
- The Treaty of Sagauli defined Gandak as the international boundary between India and Nepal.
- When the treaty was signed, Susta was on the right bank of the river Gandak which falls in Nepal territorial control.
- But, in due course of time, the river has changed its course and Susta now falls on the left bank of the Gandak which is controlled by India.