recent Sample Registration System data of 22 states has revealed that the total
Fertility Rate (TFR) for India has declined to 2.2 in 2017 after being stable
at 2.3 between 2013 and 2016.
indicates the average number of children expected to be born to a woman during
her reproductive span of 15-49 years.
of about 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility. This
represents the level at which a population can replace itself from one
generation to other without growing or declining.
TFR for rural areas, varies from 1.6 in Delhi and Tamil Nadu to 3.3 in Bihar.
For urban areas, the variation is from 1.1 in Himachal Pradesh to 2.4 in Uttar
Pradesh and Bihar.
25-29 age is the most fertile, except in Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra, where it peaked between 20 and 24. Only in Jammu and Kashmir,
the TFR is highest after 30.
factors that have contributed to declining TFR are: a) Higher education, b) increased
mobility, c) late marriage, d) financial independence among women and e) overall
has entered a 37 year period of demographic dividend since 2018. To reap the
benefits of demographic dividend, India should invest in the education and
health of the workforce and provide employment opportunities to the youth.