Zoonotic Diseases

4 min read

News: Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been emergence and outbreaks of multiple zoonotic diseases.

Facts:

Definition: Type of disease that passes from an animal or insect to a human.

DiseasesFeatures
NipahHost: Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family 
transmitted to humans from animals (such as bats or pigs), or contaminated foods and
transmitted directly from human-to-human.
Zikatransmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. 
infected people can transmit Zika through transfer of body fluids including sexual intercourse
Ebola6 species of Ebola Virus identified till date: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Taï Forest, Reston and Bombali.
Host:fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family
Transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission
Avian/Bird Flucaused by H5N1 virus, a subtype of the influenza A virus. 
Human infections occur through infected bird-to-human contact or contact with surfaces and objects contaminated by their droppings.
Human-human transmission is limited
Swine FluCaused by H1N1 virus 
occur in people with direct exposure to pigs spread from person to person, similar to seasonal influenza viruses.
Kyasanur forest diseasecaused by Kyasanur Forest disease Virus(KFDV), a member of the virus family Flaviviridae
Host: Rodents, shrews and monkeys after being bitten by an infected tick.
Transmission to humans occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal
Rabiescaused by Ribonucleic Acid(RNA) virus that is present in the saliva of a rabid animal.
Transmitted to humans following a bite of a rabid animal
West Nile Viruscaused by the West Nile Virus
Natural Host: BirdsTransmits to humans through bites from infected Culex mosquitoes
Monkeypox caused by monkeypox virus transmitted to people from wild animals such as rodents and primates
Human-to-human transmission caused by contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials
DengueCaused by Dengue virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae
Transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes Aegypti mosquito
Malariacaused by Plasmodium parasites 
transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
Hantavirusfamily of viruses which are spread mainly by rodents
does not spread from one person to another
can be contracted if someone comes in contact with a rodent that carries the virus.