News:The 28th edition of India-Thailand Coordinated Patrol (Indo-Thai CORPAT) exercise is being conducted from 05–15 September 2019.
- Indo-Thai CORPAT exercise is a bilateral maritime exercise between Indian Navy and Royal Thai Navy.
- The two countries have been participating in the biannual Coordinated Patrol (CORPAT) since 2003.
- The objective of the exercise is to ensure effective implementation of United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea(UNCLOS) which specify regulations regarding (a)protection and conservation of natural resources (b)conservation of marine environment (c)prevention and suppression of illegal activity (d)prevention and suppression of illegal fishing activity and (e)conduct of Search and Rescue operations at sea.
- The Law of the Sea Treaty formally known as the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted in 1982 at Montego Bay, Jamaica.It entered into force in 1994.
- The convention establishes a comprehensive set of rules governing the oceans and to replace previous U.N. Conventions on the Law of the Sea.This treaty defines the following terms
- Internal Waters refers to the all water and waterways on the landward side of the baseline of a country.
- In the internal waters a country is free to set laws, regulate its use and use of its resources. There is no interference of the foreign countries.
- Territorial waters refer to 12 Nautical Miles from the baseline.
- In this area the countries are free to set laws, regulate use and also use its resources.
- However, the foreign vessels are NOT given all rights to passage through except “Innocent Passage”.
- The innocent passage refers to the passing through the waters which is not prejudicial to peace and security. However, the nations have right to suspend the innocent passage. The submarine while passing through other country’s territorial waters has to navigate on the surface and show their flags.
- The contiguous zone refers to the area 12 Nautical Miles beyond the Territorial waters. This means that it is 24 Nautical Miles from the baseline limit.
- In this zone the country can enforce laws only in 4 areas viz. pollution, taxation, customs, and immigration.
Exclusive Economic Zones
- Exclusive Economic Zones refers to the area from the edge of the territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. In this area, the country has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources.
- The most important reason to introduce EEZ was to halt the clashes over the Fishing Rights and Oil Rights.
- In the EEZ, the foreign vessels have freedom of navigation and overflight subject to the regulation of the coastal states. Foreign states are allowed to lay submarine pipes and cables.