India, Nepal to hold talks on Kalapani border issue

News:Ministry of External Affairs has said that India will resolve the Kalapani border issue through dialogue.


About Kalapani:

  • Kalapani is a valley that is administered by India as a part of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.It is situated on the Kailash Mansarovar route.
  • Since the Indo-China war of 1962, the Kalapani is controlled by India’s Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
  • However,Nepal claims Kalapani as an integral part of their territory.It claims that the river located towards the west of the territory is the main Kali river and thus it falls in Nepal.
  • On the other hand,India claims that there is a ridgeline towards the east of the Kalapani territory and hence includes it in the Indian Union.

Origin of Dispute:

  • The Treaty of Sugauli was signed by the Kingdom of Nepal and British India (after Anglo-Nepalese War) in 1816 located the Kali River as Nepal’s western boundary with India. 
  • However,the discrepancy in locating the source of the river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.

What is the current situation?

  • The Prime Ministers of both the countries had discussed the issue in 2000 with Indian PM assuring Nepal that India would not occupy even an inch of Nepal. 
  • The Foreign secretaries of both countries have been assigned the responsibility to resolve the remaining border-related issues between India and Nepal.

Additional information:

Other Border dispute between India and Nepal:

Susta Area Dispute:

  • The Gandak river also known as Sapt Gandaki and Narayani in Nepal, originates at the Nhubine Himal glacier in Nepal. 
  • It flows across Nepal and enters India near the Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar from where it flows down another 300 km to meet the Ganga near Patna.
  • In 1816, a treaty was signed which took the Gandak as the international boundary between India (Bihar) and Nepal.The right bank of Gandak came under Nepal’s control and the left bank became Indian territory.
  • At the time the treaty was signed,Susta was on the right bank of the Gandak and a part of Nepal.But,over the years,the Gandak changed its course and Susta moved to the left bank that is on the Indian side of the river.
  • Hence,Nepal alleges that over 14,860 hectares of Nepali land in Susta has been encroached upon by India.Both the countries are trying to resolve the matter, but Susta remains a bone of contention.