Human trafficking within borders especially challenging issue: U.S. report

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  1. The USA has retained India in Tier 2 list of countries in 2019 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report.
  2. The report categorises countries into three groups based on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA). The TVPA is a US legislation that requires an annual report from the State Department on status of human trafficking in countries across the world
  3. Tier 2 is for those countries whose governments do not fully meet TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Examples: Brazil, Indonesia, Pakistan, Italy, India.
  4. Tier 3 countries are those countries which do not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and are not making any efforts to do so. Russia, China, Venezuela, Iran, North Korea, Syria, South Sudan, Cuba, Saudi Arabia are among 21 countries in the Tier 3.
  5. Tier 1 Countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards. Examples, USA, Australia, Japan, Spain
  6. According to the report, 77% of the cases, victims are trafficked within their own countries of residence, rather than across borders. It also adds that victims of sex trafficking were more likely to be trafficked across borders while victims of forced labour were typically exploited within their own countries
  7. For India, the report has observed that government of India does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so.
  8. The report has also highlighted Indian government’s failure in this regard. For example, the report highlights that systemic failure to address forced labour and sex trafficking in government-run and government-funded shelter homes remained a serious problem.
  9. The report has recommended India to a) amend the definition of trafficking in Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code to include forced labour trafficking, b) establish Anti-Human Trafficking Units in all districts with dedicated funding and clear mandates.

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